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Nothing is free from criticism. There are 
several problems related to the HAI and 
EVI. The equal weight it assigns to each 
of its four indicators makes it an artificial 
measure of human resources. In effect, 
it presumes that societies count a dollar 
spent on literacy as the equivalent of a 
dollar spent on health care, despite the 
fact that preferences for these assets vary 
among different societies depending on 
their unique circumstances and needs. In 
addition, each of the sub-indexes is treated 
independently by the HAI and EVI, while in 
real life they are highly dependent on each 
other. For example, a high mortality rate 

for children is often associated with a low 
adult literacy rate for women. Moreover, 
graduation does not tell anything about the 
growing inequality in the society.

A country will qualify for graduation from 
LDC status in the following two ways 
considering the fact that it does not have a 
population greater than 75 million. 

 Way - 1: If it has met graduation 

thresholds under at least two of the 
three criteria in at least two consecutive 
triennial reviews of the list.

 Way - 2: If the three-year average per-

capita GNI of an LDC has reached to 
a level at least doubles the graduation 
threshold, and if this performance 
is considered durable. This rule is 
commonly referred to as the ‘income-
only’ graduation rule. For instance, 
Equatorial Guinea has graduated in 
such way.

E. The present status of Bangladesh and 

the way forward.

According to the 2018 triennial review of 
the LDC category, Bangladesh qualifies in 
all three categories.  

Bangladesh’s success has come on the back 
of six straight years in which economic 
growth has exceeded 6%, culminating 
in some of the fastest growth rates in the 
world. The country reduced poverty rate 

into 23.2% (up to 2016) whereas it was 
31.5% in 2010. At the same period extreme 
poverty rate declined into 12.9% from 
17.6% in 2010. The EVI has consistently 
decreased since 2003, the first year it fell 

below the CDP’s official threshold. This 
has been partly explained by greater export 
stability and diversification.

75

70

65

60

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013

2015

2017

75

70

65

60

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013

2015

2017

Maternal Mortality

Under Five Mortality

Undernourishment

Adult Literacy

Gross Secondary School Enrolment

Graduation Threshold

HAL  Breakdown

LDC Average

Figure-3: Human assets index, Bangladesh and LDC average, 1999-2017

EXPERT’S INSIGHT

Table: Graduation Criteria & Bangladesh States

Criterion

2018

CDP

BBS

Gross National Income (GNI) Per capita

US$ 1230 or more

US$ 1272

US$ 1271

Human Asset Index (HAI)

66 or more

72.8

72.9

Economic Vulnerability Index (EVT)

32 or less

25.0

24.8

Source: BBS Data for all indicators are soureed from International Organizations.